A Brief Survey And Investigation Of Hybrid Beamforming For Millimeter Waves In 5G Massive MIMO Systems

  • Qazwan Abdullah1,*, Adeb Salh, Nor Shahida Mohd Shah, Noorsaliza Abdullah, Lukman Audah, Shipun Anuar Hamzah, Nabil Farah, Maged Aboali, Shahilah Nordin


Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) is a promising technique to enhance the network capacity and coverage of next-generation (5G) based on utilizing a great number of available spectrum resources in mobile communication. Improving the 5G network requires enhancing and employing mm-wave beamforming channel propagation characteristics. To achieve high data rates, system performance remains a challenge given the impact of propagation channels in mm-wave that is insufficient in both path loss, delay spread, and penetration loss. Additional challenges arise due to high cost and energy consumption, which require combining both analog and digital beamforming (hybrid beamforming) to reduce the number of radio frequency (RF) chains. In this paper, the distributed powers in the small cell to suppress path loss by specifying a considerable power and controlling the distributed power to reduce the high cost and energy consumption was proposed. The hybrid beamforming in mm-wave exploits a large bandwidth which reduces the large path loss in Rayleigh fading channel. Also, the trade-off between the energy consumption of RF chains and cost efficiency depends on reducing the number of RF chains and the distributed number of users. This paper finds that hybrid beamforming for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems constitute a promising platform for advancing and capitalizing on 5G networks.