Appreciation Health Hazard of Heavy Metals from Petroleum Industry on Water and Sediment at Al-Kahla'a Districts of Maysan Province in Iraq
The contaminations of toxic heavy metals such as, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V, Ni, and Zn in water and sediment at Al-Kahla'a District, Maysan province in Iraq, were measured by Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). Most of the metals concentration exceeded the maximum permissible limit set by MEP, (2002); EU DWD, (2002); IQS, (2009); WHO, (2017); EPA, (2018) for water and Vinogradov, 1959; Kabata-pendias and pendias, 2001; FAO/WHO, 2006; Al-Bassam and Yousif, 2014; Vodyanitskii, 2016 for sediment. The mean concentrations of metals were observed decreasing in the following order: Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > As > Cd > V in water; Zn > Pb > V > Cr > Ni > Cu > As > Cd in sediment. Contamination factor (CF) showed that the sediment was moderate to highly contaminated by As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V, Ni, and Zn, especially Cd. The Metal pollution index (MPI) values of analyzed samples revealed that sediment was contaminated to highly contaminated.The results of measuring the Enrichment factor (EF) generally indicate that the arrangement of the metals according to the level of their enrichment in sediments of the study area is as (Cd > As> Zn > Pb > Cr > V > Cu > Ni). A health risk assessment model was applied to the heavy elements of water and sediments in the study area for both ingestion and dermal exposure pathways. It was found that all the values of (HQing) and (HQdrm) for water were less than (1) indicating the absence of non-carcinogenic risks for children and adults, as well as for sediments, the values of (HQing) and (HQdrm) were less than (1) also indicating no Presence of non-carcinogenic risks for children and adults, except for lead. The value of (HQing) for children was greater than (1), indicating the presence of non-carcinogenic risks through the route of ingestion., indicating no health hazards due to dermal exposure. Children are more prone to dermal exposure than adults by comparing the HQdrm and HQing values for adults and children.
Keywords: Maysan Province;Enrichment factor; Metal Pollution Index; Contamination factor; Health risk assessment.