Review of Advances in Glucose Responsive Insulin Treatments and Their Corresponding Delivery Methods for Type I Diabetes
Today diabete remains one of the biggest medical challenges that affect a large population worldwide. Diabetic patients use insulin injections to manage their diseases. However, this traditional treatment is inconvenient and painful. As an alternative treatment, glucose-responsive insulin delivery solves the complications of frequent acute injections and is able to deliver the appropriate amount of insulin under both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia conditions. Benefits of this alternative treatment includes an improved life quality for diabetic patients and better insulin dosage control. A closed-loop glucose-responsive insulin delivery method releases insulin based on the body’s glucose level and stops delivery once glucose is restored. Current closed-loop glucose-responsive insulin delivery methods are categorized into insulin pump, glucose-oxidase, concanavalin A, and phenylboronic acid. Besides insulin pumps, which are electronic wearable devices, the other three methods are applied non-invasively. This review examines the most up-to-date developments in those four mechanisms and critically analyzes the challenges each faces.
Keywords- Type I diabetes; glucose responsive treatment; insulin pump; glucose oxidase; concanavalin a; phenylboronic acid; drawbacks and advantages.